Nanjing Zhong Hua City Gate (Zhonghua Gate), China
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Zhong Hua City Gate & City Wall
The Zhong Hua City Gate (Zhonghua Gate) is located in the north of Jubao Mountain in Nanjing City.
To the north is the Zhenhuai Bridge. The Qinhuai River runs through it from west to east.
The Nanjing Ancient Wall is 67 kilometers long in perimeter, 7 kilometers longer than the Beijing ancient wall. It is not only the longest city wall in China but also the longest of its kind in the world.
The Zhong Hua Ancient City Wall, the formal south front gate of Nanjing City, was built in the period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (917A.D.). In the early Ming Dynasty, they rebuilt it and named it Jubao (gathering treasures) City Gate. In 1931, it was renamed Zhong Hua City Gate (Zhonghua Gate).
The present gate keeps the appearance of the old one's in the early Ming Dynasty. It is in the shape of rectangular, 128 meters long from south to north and 90 meters wide from west to east. The area equivalent to two footballs fields. On the ancient city gate the only remains is the terrace of the original buildings.
The Zhong Hua Ancient City Wall is the best preserved among the ancient wall in Nanjing City. The ground of the wall is base on granite and limestone. The space between brick and brick were casting with the juice of glutinous rice, the paste of Chinese sorghum mixing with lime or oil.
Therefore, the city wall is very solid. The bricks are uniform and each is 40 centimeters long, 20 centimeters in width and 10 centimeters thick. Every brick weights about 10 kg.
The present wall is 20.45 meters high. The caves of the four inner and outer gates are in the shape of arch. Each of the gates had a hoisting gate that could be raised freely and two-fold wooden gate in the past. Only the gate slot remains now.
The most special building on the ancient gate wall is the Jar City, which was a rather ingenious military defense system. It was very convenient and efficient for the generals to commend his troops.
The Zhong Hua Ancient City Gate and the City Wall stood there to defend the whole Nanjing City regardless of the weather. Because of the war and some other reasons, it lost some parts. However, no doubt that the gate still stands firmly to shows its solemnity and mighty through the past 600 years.
It is a great masterpiece of the ancient people. When you see the spiritedly ancient wall that weathered through rains and storms, you will inevitably acclaim for his mighty.
There is a Jar City between every two-city wall in Nanjing City. On the Zhong Hua City Wall, there are three Jar cities in total. In the middle of the first Jar City was lined seven caves for hiding soldiers. With three caves on both sides of the upper and down message roads, there are 13 caves in total.
These caves could hold soldiers ranging from 100 to 1000. At the normal time, it was the place for soldiers to rest or store food. During the war, it was a place to gather soldiers to attack enemies unexpectedly. The soldiers hid in the caves and let the enemies in. After a column of gunshot, the gate was close. The generals and soldiers suddenly appeared in the caves and shot the enemies.